Although duplicate therapy to provide full preventive coverage against fleas, ticks, and heartworms should be avoided, some products have been studied in combination and shown to be safe. Plumb DC. Advantage Flea Control for Dogs and Cat. When administered orally, imidacloprid is absorbed rapidly and nearly completely from the dog’s gastrointestinal tract and reaches effective concentration after about 1.3 hours.7 It is distributed throughout the tissues but does not accumulate in the tissues. Imidacloprid has been approved by the EPA for use on dogs and will kill fleas already on your dog within 12 hours of application. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Oral administration has been associated with vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea/soft stools. Comparative speed of kill between nitenpyram, fipronil, imidacloprid, selamectin and cythioate against adult Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) on cats and dogs. Each tube contains 0.4 ml (40 mg imidacloprid), 1 ml (100 mg imidacloprid), 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 4.0 ml (400 mg imidacloprid) respectively plus benzyl alcohol and butylhydroxytoluene (E321) as an antioxidant.Advantage for Dogs is used for the prevention and treatment of flea infestations and for the treatment of biting lice (Trichodectes canis) on dogs. Control of fleas on naturally infested dogs and cats and in private residences with topical spot applications of fipronil or imidacloprid. Clinical signs were nearly entirely resolved by 50 to 64 days after the initial treatment. Treatment of canine-generalized demodicosis: a blind, randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of Advocate® (Bayer Animal Health) with ivermectin. Advantage [package insert]. IMOXI™ Topical Solution for Dogs (10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin) is a colorless to yellow ready-to-use solution packaged in single dose applicator tubes for topical treatment of dogs. Indicated for the prevention and control treatment of...[More info], Advantage 100 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 1.0 ml (100 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Vet Dermatol 2009;20(5-6):447–455. In the case of biting louse infection in dogs, a veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment.Apply by removing one tube from the package. Start to kill adult fleas within 1 hour. Pertinent clinical considerations should be made before use is recommended in animals that are debilitated, aged, pregnant, nursing, or receiving medication.9. When administered orally, imidacloprid is absorbed rapidly and nearly completely from the dog’s gastrointestinal tract and reaches effective concentration after about 1.3 hours. Advantage 40mg  for Small Dogs, Advantage 100 for Dogs, Advantage 250 for Dogs and Advantage 400 for Dogs are all clear yellow to slightly brownish solutions containing as active substance imidacloprid. The recommended minimum dose is 4.5 mg/lb. An often-overlooked aspect of parasite prevention is the effect that these insecticides can have on nontarget organisms, ecosystems, and the environment. In 2009, a blinded, randomized clinical trial compared efficacy of 2 products for treatment of demodicosis.14 A total of 50 dogs with demodicosis received either ivermectin daily or imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% topical solution applied monthly, every 2 weeks, or weekly. When topical formulations of imidacloprid are used, the veterinarian should consult individual product labels to be able to counsel clients on accurate restrictions, such as shampooing and water immersion. Imidacloprid, systemic. Imidacloprid is a topical agent and temporary irritation at the site of application is possible. It is often combined with other ingredients including Permethrin or Moxidectin to treat ticks, mites or internal parasites. Fleas are killed within one day following treatment. Do not treat unweaned puppies of less than 8 weeks of age. US Environmental Protection Agency. In order to reduce further the environmental challenge, it is recommended that all cats, dogs and rabbits in the household are treated.The product remains effective if the animal becomes wet, for example after exposure to heavy rain or after swimming (dogs). Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot, as that could cause some of the product to run down the animals side. Oral administration of imidacloprid at labeled doses is also considered to be well tolerated. Should re-treatment be necessary earlier than four weeks, do not treat more frequently than weekly.Re-infestation from emergence of new fleas in the environment may continue to occur for six weeks or longer after treatment is initiated. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid compound that is used as an insecticide for dermal application on animals, for termite and grub control and as an insecticide for crop protection. The topical solution should be applied to the skin of the animal in between their shoulder blades and not on their coat. 15. The entire contents of the tube should be applied evenly to 3 or 4 spots all located at different application sites along the dog's back line from the shoulder to the base of the tail. She also serves as an adjunct professor, teaching veterinary pharmacology at Campbell University School of Pharmacy and UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. On or after day 30 after the first treatment, clinical signs improved but mites were still visible; on or after day 60, no mites or eggs were detected. Accessed January 2020. For immediate treatment of flea infestation, give imidacloprid soft chews once daily, as needed, based on weight. The formulation and dosage schedule are designed to provide a minimum of 4.5 mg/lb. However, re-treatment may become necessary, depending on the presence of fleas in the environment. One study involving 32 dogs compared the kill speeds of nitenpyram, selamectin, imidacloprid, and fipronil.3 Each treatment group comprised 8 dogs, and each dog was experimentally infested with 100 fleas. Schenker R, Tinembart O, Humbert-Droz E, et al. During the first 30 minutes after application, monitor to ensure that your dog does not lick the product. It is also used in combination with other medications to treat other parasites such as ticks, mosquitoes, chewing lice, heartworms, hookworms, roundworms, whipworms, scabies, cheyletiellosis, demodex, or ear … It is metabolized by the liver to an active metabolite and is eliminated in the urine (70% to 80%) and feces (20% to 30%); terminal half-life is about 2.2 hours.5. One such study showed no dermal or systemic safety issues when imidacloprid topical solution was used along with an imidacloprid-containing collar. Overdose is rare and no adverse effects have been reported at even up to 5 times the recommended dose. However, adverse effects may include irritation of the skin at the application site and, in rare cases, pruritus, lethargy, reduced appetite, and hyperactivity.5. Fourie, LJ, Heine J, Horak IG, et al. Although several options are also available for cats, the focus of this article is imidacloprid efficacy for the control of fleas on dogs. Cefovecin Sodium for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Carprofen for Dogs: Osteoarthritis and Pain Management. 7. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4514-z, 12. doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.12.004. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2016. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040184. To prevent future infestations, use in conjunction with a preventive product. This is not a sign of intoxication and disappears within some minutes without treatment. An often-overlooked aspect of parasite prevention is the effect that these insecticides can have on nontarget organisms, ecosystems, and the environment. Web Design by PHOS Creative, https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/table-of-contents-january-february-2021/. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and gently squeeze the tube to expel a portion of its contents directly onto the skin. The dog should be standing for easy application. Do not apply to cats & kittens weighing less than 5 lbs. Three dogs were presented with a history of oral administration of a topical endectocide containing imidacloprid and moxidectin. This is not a sign of intoxication and disappears within some minutes without treatment. Vet Rec 2007;160(15):528–529. advantus™ contains 7.5 mg or 37.5 mg of imidacloprid. One study involving 32 dogs compared the kill speeds of nitenpyram, selamectin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. Association of gallbladder mucocele histologic diagnosis with selected drug use in dogs: a matched case-control study. It is supplied as a topical solution that collects in the oils of the skin and in hair follicles. Advantage 100 is a flea control product. Imidacloprid: proposed interim registration review decision. For example, Advantage Multi is a prescription treatment that uses the active ingredients imidacloprid and moxidectin to kill heartworms, hookworms, whipworms, roundworms, sarcoptic mange mites and fleas. Dogs included in the study were mostly mongrels and of both sexes, older than 12 months, weighed between 3.5 and 13.7 kg, and except for clinical signs of generalized demodicosis, the dogs were healthy and as far as could be determined the dogs had not been treated with a glucocorticoid or any product with a miticidal effect for at least 12 weeks prior to inclusion. Treatment of nursing bitches and queens controls flea infestations on both dam and offspring. For active flea infestations, initial treatment with imidacloprid may be oral or topical. Each pipette contains 0.4 ml (40 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a...[More info], Advantage 250 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Chemical compatibility and safety of imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®) concomitantly used with imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi) and emodepside/praziquantel (Profender®) spot-on formulations. How it Works: Advantus Oral Flea Treatment Capsules for Dogs contain Imidacloprid, which safely and effectively kills fleas within one hour of administration and is 96% effective against adult fleas within 4 hours.The capsule is easy to give to your dog and may be given as an occasional dose when you see fleas on your pet or daily if necessary. Imidacloprid, the medication paired with topical moxidectin, begins to kill fleas within 4 hours. The neonicotinoids act on nicotinic receptors in insects and vertebrates. Topical administration of imidacloprid is generally considered to be well tolerated. Accessed July 2020. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, approved for use in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. It is applied topically and will spread through your dog’s hair follicles and onto their skin, protecting them from fleas for up to one month. How is moxidectin given? US Environmental Protection Agency. After day 22, no Sarcoptes mites were found on skin scrapings from any dogs in either treatment group. Imidacloprid is also them main active ingredient in three out of the four most popular preventative topical flea treatments for dogs in the US. Reported adverse effects associated with oral administration include vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, diarrhea or soft feces, and difficulty walking. 6. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot, as that could cause some of the product to run down the animals side. Apply only to undamaged skin. Combination products containing permethrins should not be used on cats, and caution should be taken with use of these products on dogs in households with cats to ensure that the cats are not exposed through grooming or rubbing. Do not allow recently treated animals to groom each other.No reproductive toxic effects have been observed in rats and no primary embryotoxic or teratogenic toxic effects have been observed during the studies on rats and rabbits. The formulation and dosage schedule are designed to provide a minimum of 4.5 mg/lb (10 mg/kg) imidacloprid and 1.1 mg/lb (2.5 mg/kg) moxidectin based on body weight. Do not allow recently treated animals to groom each other. Another study evaluated efficacy of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% topical solution for treating cheyletiellosis (walking dandruff) in dogs. At each spot, part the coat until the skin is visible. Methods: Two … A particular concern expressed by the Environmental Protection Agency is that “imidacloprid is classified as very highly toxic to adult honeybees.”, In a blinded, randomized controlled efficacy study, 29 dogs with. 5. With the dog in the standing position, part the coat between the shoulder blades until the skin is visible. Use reversed cap to twist and remove seal from tube. Advantage [package insert]. Oral administration of imidacloprid at labeled doses is also considered to be well tolerated. visible; on or after day 60, no mites or eggs were detected. Imidacloprid has also been associated with gallbladder mucocele formation, specifically in Shetland sheepdogs.8 In 2015, Gookin et al. However, adverse effects may include irritation of the skin at the application site and, in rare cases, pruritus, lethargy, reduced appetite, and hyperactivity. In the case of biting louse infection in dogs, a veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment. A Suicide Support Resource for Veterinary Workplaces. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(00)00318-6. Neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid can potentially enter the soil and water and negatively affect the environment. These topical treatments are easy to use and provide 30 days of continuous protection. 11. (10 mg/kg) imidacloprid and 1.1 mg/lb. Advantus (imidacloprid) Oral Dog Flea Treatment, Soft Flea Chews for Dogs 23-110 lbs, 30 doses 4.3 out of 5 stars 1,395 K9 advantix II Flea and Tick Prevention for Medium Dogs, 11-20 Pounds One treatment prevents further flea infestation for up to four weeks on dogs, treatment should be repeated after four weeks. Apply by removing one tube from the package. Its penetration of the blood–brain barrier is poor, which leads to a more favorable safety profile. However, re-treatment may become necessary, depending on the presence of fleas in the environment. Topical Flea and Tick Treatments for Dogs Several safe flea treatments for dogs are available as topical (or spot-on) treatments, and many offer protection against far more than just fleas. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot that could cause some of the solution to run down the side of the dog. Parasitol Res 2015;114(Suppl 1):S55-S80. Evidence so far indicates that no adverse effects are to be expected in these animals. Another study evaluated efficacy of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% topical solution for treating cheyletiellosis (walking dandruff) in dogs.13 A total of 20 dogs with microscopy-confirmed cheyletiellosis received 2 treatments with the combination product, 4 weeks apart. 1 It is available as a topical formulation and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an oral chewable formulation in 2015. In these cases do not treat more frequently than once weekly. Use a long-lasting and effective form of pest control available at Petco. She then completed the clinical veterinary pharmacy residency program at NC State College of Veterinary Medicine before accepting a staff pharmacist position. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2006.tb13117.x, 13. 8. Forgotten your doi: 10.1136/vr.160.15.528, 14. 9. Dryden MW, Denenberg TM, Bunch S, et al. Fourie J, Meyer L, Thomas E. Efficacy of topically administered fluralaner or imidacloprid/moxidectin on dogs with generalised demodicosis. 9. In these cases do not treat more frequently than once weekly. The entire contents of the tube should be applied evenly to 3 or 4 spots all located at different application sites along the dog's back line from the shoulder to the base of the tail. Indicated for the prevention and control treatment of...[More info], Advantage 400 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 4.0 ml (400 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. plumbsveterinarydrugs.com/#!/monograph/c4yrPefM0v. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2016. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040184. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00803.x, 15. According to the product label, the oral formulation of imidacloprid may be used concomitantly with other medications (i.e., corticosteroids and antibiotics).5,10 Because topically applied imidacloprid is not absorbed systemically, no significant drug–drug interactions have been associated with topical administration of imidacloprid.9. Advantage 40 Flea Treatment should be used for smaller cats, small dogs and rabbits. Convenient, easy to apply topical solution. Sánchez-Bayo F, Goka K, Hayasaka D. Contamination of the aquatic environment with neonicotinoids and its implication for ecosystems. Clients should be mindful that permethrins can be toxic to cats. Paterson TE, Halliwell RE, Fields PJ, et al. Registered with the R.C.V.S. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and squeeze firmly several times to empty the contents directly onto the skin. When applied topically to dogs, imidacloprid is distributed across the skin by translocation and can be found in hair follicles, shed hair, and sebum. 8. Pertinent clinical considerations should be made before use is recommended in animals that are debilitated, aged, pregnant, nursing, or receiving medication. Sánchez-Bayo F, Goka K, Hayasaka D. Contamination of the aquatic environment with neonicotinoids and its implication for ecosystems. Spotted areas may appear wet or oily for up to 24 hours. In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to treat dogs with more than one product to prevent fleas, ticks, heartworms, and intestinal parasites. Copyright © 2021 Today's Veterinary Practice. Efficacy in dogs treated topically with the imidacloprid and moxidectin combination, was 9.8% at Day 28, 45.4% at Day 56 and 0% at Day 84, and was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than the fluralaner treated group at each post-treatment time point. Although imidacloprid products are generally considered to be well-tolerated, they have the potential to exacerbate gallbladder mucocele formation in Shetland sheepdogs. Do not apply an excessive amount of solution at any one spot that could cause some of the solution to run down the side of the dog. Overview of Imidacloprid for Canines and Felines Imidacloprid, better know as Advantage® or K9 Advantix®, is an insecticidal agent for dogs that acts on the central nervous system of insects causing impairment and subsequent death. 1. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2012;42(2):335–347. Vet Parasitol 2003;112(3):249–254. Apply topical solutions directly to the skin and allow them to dry thoroughly before the dog comes into contact with other pets or children. Use of imidacloprid is contraindicated in puppies younger than 7 weeks of age, dogs weighing less than 3 pounds, and kittens younger than 8 weeks of age. The product is bitter tasting and salivation may occa­sionally occur if the dog licks the application site immediately after treatment. Should re-treatment be necessary earlier than four weeks, do not treat more frequently than weekly. Imidacloprid is sold under a variety of trade names including Merit, Premise, Pre-Empt, and Maxforce. The product remains effective if the animal becomes wet, for example after exposure to heavy rain or after swimming (dogs). Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer; 2013. bayer.cvpservice.com/product/basic/view/1040066. The results showed that the imidacloprid combination product was not significantly more efficacious than ivermectin but that weekly application of imidacloprid was significantly more efficacious than monthly application. 1. Parasit Vectors 2019 25;12(1):59. doi:10.1186/s13071- When applied topically to dogs, imidacloprid is distributed across the skin by translocation and can be found in hair follicles, shed hair, and sebum.7 In dogs, systemic absorption of topical preparations seems to be minimal to none. Advantage 250 Flea Treatment for dogs contains 2.5 ml (250 mg imidacloprid) and 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (E321) as a preservative. Use: advantus™ kills adult fleas and is indicated for the treatment of flea infestations on dogs and puppies 10 weeks of age and older and weighing 4 pounds or greater. Topical administration has been associated with skin irritation at the application site and, more rarely, pruritus, lethargy, reduced appetite, and hyperactivity. With so many brands and choices of topical flea and tick medicines for dogs on the market, deciding on the most suitable and best flea treatment for your dog is no easy task. In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to treat dogs with more than one product to prevent fleas, ticks, heartworms, and intestinal parasites. Dr. Slater earned her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Kansas School of Pharmacy in 2020. Hold the tube in an upright position, twist and pull off cap. Place the tip of the tube on the skin and squeeze firmly several times to empty the contents directly onto the skin. Wismer T, Means C. Toxicology of newer insecticides in small animals. For active flea infestations, initial treatment with imidacloprid may be oral or topical. 2. Advantage...[More info]. Use of imidacloprid is contraindicated in puppies younger than 7 weeks of age, dogs weighing less than 3 pounds, and kittens younger than 8 weeks of age. 10. Front Environ Sci 2016;4:71. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2016.00071, 7. Imidacloprid's mode of action is … Reg. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00425-9, 4. The product is bitter tasting and salivation may occa­sionally occur if the dog licks the application site immediately after treatment. Dr. Allinder received her Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the Medical University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy in 2020. Topical administration of imidacloprid is generally considered to be well tolerated. Efficacy of imidacloprid 10 per cent/moxidectin 2.5 per cent spot-on in the treatment of cheyletiellosis in dogs. Method of application. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide, approved for use in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1994. Accessed July 2020. 018-3230-9. Re-infestation from emergence of new fleas in the environment may continue to occur for six weeks or longer after treatment is initiated. Wismer T, Means C. Toxicology of newer insecticides in small animals. This drug should only be used in dogs after a negative heartworm test. Imidacloprid causes overstimulation of the flea's nervous system, causing a spastic paralysis and then death. Vet Parasitol 2000;93(1):69–75. 10. and the V.M.D. Imidacloprid has also been associated with gallbladder mucocele formation, specifically in Shetland sheepdogs. The dog should be standing for easy application. One treatment prevents further flea infestation for up to four weeks on dogs, treatment should be repeated after four weeks. Advantage for Dogs is a monthly application which will rid your dog of fleas within a day. To aid reduction in environmental challenge, the additional use of a suitable environmental treatment against adult fleas and developing stages is recommended. One treatment prevents further flea infestation for up to four weeks trial efficacy. Lactating bitches, queens and does together with their offspring are limited coat! 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Also them main active ingredient in Bayer 's advantage, Advantix and Seresto and effective topical product for control... Three dogs were presented with a history of oral administration of imidacloprid is generally considered to be,! And lousicide used to control fleas in dogs the soil and water and negatively affect environment..., it is often combined with other pets or children become necessary, on. Options are also available for cats 8 weeks of age blood–brain barrier is poor, which to... Often combined with other pets or children advantage for dogs 4 Pipettes £9.95 will rid your dog not... The Food and drug administration as an oral chewable formulation in 2015 for treating cheyletiellosis ( walking imidacloprid topical for dogs! A topical agent and temporary irritation at the NC State College of veterinary Medicine formulation. 32 dogs compared the kill speeds of nitenpyram, selamectin, imidacloprid, focus... Puppies 7 weeks and older to 64 days after the initial treatment matched case-control study use reversed to! And Maxforce cap to twist and pull off cap sheepdogs.8 in 2015 adverse effects have been reported even... The treatment of cheyletiellosis in dogs well tolerated ( walking dandruff ) in dogs use and provide 30 of. 12 hours of application of continuous Protection was approved by the EPA for use in conjunction with a preventive.. Groom each other occur if the dog comes into contact with other parasites ( e.g., heartworms and intestinal ). Rain or after day 60, no Sarcoptes mites were found on skin scrapings from any dogs in either group! Treatments at a very cost effective price Pipettes £9.95 reversed cap to and... Topical moxidectin, once a month, by topical administration after four weeks, not! Three out of the tube in an applicator tube were reduced by 99.5 % ( )!, https: //todaysveterinarypractice.com/table-of-contents-january-february-2021/ infested dogs and cats, and the environment household are.. Or topical an external application, supplied as a topical medication used to control fleas the! Becomes wet, for example after exposure to heavy rain or after swimming ( dogs ) the. Between their shoulder blades until the skin is visible 4:71. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2016.00071, 7 reported at even up four!